Substantiation of technologies and technical means for disposal of mining and metallurgical waste in mines
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The object of research is environmental and resource-saving technologies in underground mining of mineral deposits with the laying of the developed space. One of the most problematic places is the delivery of hardening filling mixtures to the place of their installation and the lack of components for their preparation. This increases the importance of managing the state of ore-bearing massifs and the preservation of the earth’s surface. The paper presents the main scientific and practical results of the substantiation of technologies and technical means for the disposal of mining and metallurgical production wastes into underground mined spaces (man-made voids) as components of hardening filling mixtures. Methods of theoretical generalizations are described using mathematical statistics, physical and mathematical modeling, with calculations and feasibility studies, laboratory and field experimental studies, industrial tests in operating enterprises. It is established that the use of vibration, mechanical and electroactivation of the components of the hardening filling mixture in mining enterprises leads to an increase in the activity of substandard materials by up to 10–40 % for each device. In particular, the enrichment of substandard inert materials at the vibrating screen GV-1.2/3.2 (Ukraine) increases the activity by 15–20 %. It is proved that the activation of binders (blast furnace granulated slag) in the DU-65 disintegrator (Disintegrator, Estonia) increases the activity of the binder by 20–25 %, with the output of the active class of fractions of 0.074 mm in size – by 55 % versus 40 % in ball mills. Vibration transport unit are recommended, which increase the activity of the solid components of the hardening filling mixture by 10–15 %, and electrodialysis apparatus for activating mixing water increase its activity by 30–40 %. It is shown that the use of vibration gravity transport systems ensures the filling of the filling mixture at a distance exceeding the height of the vertical stand by 15–20 times. A set of technical means is proposed for activating the components of hardening filling mixtures (binder, inert aggregate and electrochemically purified mine mixing water) during the manufacture and transportation of them to the installation site. This complex was introduced at such mining enterprises as: – State Enterprise «Eastern Mining and Processing Plant» and Balaklava Mining Administration (Ukraine); – Joint-stock company «Tselinnyi Mining and Chemical Combine» (Republic of Kazakhstan); – Public Joint-Stock Company «Priargunsky Industrial Mining and Chemical Association» and Closed Joint-Stock Company «Uralzoloto» (Russian Federation) in other developed mining countries.